The Comoros lost 24% if its forests between 1990 and 2015, one of the highest deforestation rates in the world (FAO, 2015). The deforestation threatens the livelihoods of the local population dependent on agriculture and over 20 terrestrial species listed as vulnerable or worse on the IUCN’s Red List. The situation is particularly critical on the island of Anjouan where population pressure is over 600 people/km2, and where deforestation has led to the loss of around 40 of 50 previously permanent rivers. This project seeks to consolidate a community-led model for landscape management for the Comoros, combining forest and biodiversity protection with agricultural and agroforestry development in 10 villages surrounding the Moya forest KBA in Anjouan. The project will support over 2000 farmers and thus 10,000 direct beneficiaries to improve their revenues from agriculture and agroforestry. The project will map traditional knowledge regarding the advantages and disadvantages of different trees for different purposes, and combine this with scientific understanding to propose improved agroforestry regimes. At the same time at least 400 hectares of forest conserving key ecosystem services for 34,000 beneficiaries, notably water provisioning, will be put under management by communities supported by local authorities, and at least 40 hectares conserving biodiversity hotspots. A fourth component will look to integrate the model into national policy and legislation. Lessons learnt will be recorded in peer-reviewed articles and be applicable to SIDS and other highly-pressured systems with high agriculture and natural resource dependency.